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Definition: autonomous vehicle levels

Following are the five stages of automation for vehicles. Each level includes all the functions of the previous levels.

Level 1 - Anti-lock brakes (see ABS).

Level 2 - Warnings for open doors and unbuckled seat belts. See TPM.

Level 3 - In 2019, most new cars have these features. See navigation system, adaptive cruise control, collision avoidance system, lane departure system, blind spot monitoring and adaptive headlights.

Level 4 - User-initiated self-driving; for example, Tesla's Autopilot. A few cars are at this stage in 2019.

Level 5 - No steering wheel. See self-driving car.