The "mathematics of logic," developed by English mathematician George Boole in the mid-19th century. Just as add, subtract, multiply and divide are the primary operations of arithmetic, AND, OR and NOT are the primary logical operators of Boolean logic and building blocks of every digital circuit. NAND (not AND), NOR (not OR) and XOR (exclusive OR) are variations of AND, OR and NOT (see NAND, NOR and XOR). See Boolean search, binary, logic gate and Bebop to the Boolean Boogie.

**AND, OR and NOT Gates**

Transistors wired in series and parallel patterns make up "gates," which accept binary input (0 = no pulse; 1 = pulse) and generate binary output. Although AND requires both inputs to be 1 in order to generate a 1 as output, OR only needs one. NOT reverses the input. For a diagram of these actions, see Boolean gates.

**Decimal vs. Binary**

**Add a One and Zero**

**Trace the Flow Yourself**

**Patterns of Boolean Logic**

Transistors wired in series and parallel patterns make up "gates," which accept binary input (0 = no pulse; 1 = pulse) and generate binary output. Although AND requires both inputs to be 1 in order to generate a 1 as output, OR only needs one. NOT reverses the input. For a diagram of these actions, see Boolean gates.

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