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Definition: Bitcoin Script

A stack-based scripting language embedded in Bitcoin transactions. When bitcoins are sent to a recipient, Script commands in an unlocking script (scriptSig) validate the available bitcoins (UTXOs), while Script commands in a locking script (scriptPubKey) set the conditions for spending them. See stack.

Inputs Are Unlocked and Outputs Are Locked
The unlocking script validates the Bitcoin inputs, and the locking script sets the conditions for spending the transferred coins. For more details, see Bitcoin transaction.