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Definition: 128-bit computing

CPUs that process 128 bits as a single unit, compared to 8, 16, 32 or 64 bits. As of 2020, there are no 128-bit computers on the market. A 128-bit processor may never occur because there is no practical reason for doubling the basic register size. One of the reasons for migrating from 32-bit to 64-bit computers was memory (RAM) addressing; however, we only need a few more bits beyond 32 for all practical purposes (see binary values). No computer's memory addressing even comes close to using 64 bits because a 64-bit register could reach 18 quintillion bytes of RAM, roughly a million times more than the largest computers today.

Other than Basic Word Size
However, 128-bit and greater processing already exists for graphics and floating point operations in today's 32-bit and 64-bit computers (see SSE). Computers also operate on multiple sets of data simultaneously that are stored in vector registers 128, 256 and 512 bits in length. In addition, 128 and 256 bits are commonly used for encryption keys (see secret-key cryptography). See 128-bit graphics accelerator, 8-bit computing, 16-bit computing, 32-bit computing, 64-bit computing and bit specifications.